|Constructivism||Cognitivism (in Duffy, p. 102-103)||Behaviorism (In Ertmer & Newby)|
|Theory: Instructor is viewed as guide, that facilitates learning, not as a transmitter of knowledge||Theory: “Cognition theories stress the acquisition of knowledge and internal mental structure.” (In Ertmer & Newby, p. 57)
There is not a prescription for every possible combination of instructional conditions. Predicting learner behavior because it difficult to assess how information is received, organized, stored, and retrieved in the mind.
Didactic instruction, (subject information) links theory with practice or current situation.
|Theory: Learning is accomplished when a proper response is demonstrated. The key components are stimulus and response|
|Learning is based on prior knowledge; instructor role is to provide learning experiences that expose inconsistencies between student’s current understanding and new knowledge.||Individual differences make it difficult to make predict learning because students aptitudes and skills differ, including their prior knowledge, motivation, beliefs, anxiety levels, and intellectual development.||The arrangement of the stimuli and consequences within the environment is the most critical. Learners determine starting points and the effective reinforcements. (p. 55)|
|Student should be engaged in their learning in an active way, with relevant problem and group interaction||Some learns know how they learn best and may not use the strategy selected for them. If the wrong learning strategy is selected it difficult to predict the learning behavior because students may not monitor their learning progress and they inability to change learning strategies.||Memory is crucial, and requires periodic practice and reinforcement over time to maintain a learners readiness to respond. (p. 55)|
|Reflection is necessary for examination of the new experiences.||Research in situated learning indicates that in ‘most everyday cognition is not planful and is most likely to depend on what is afforded by the particular situation in which it takes place.” (p. 103)||Transfer is the application of the learned knowledge in new ways or situations, as well as to how prior knowledge affects new learning. (p. 55-56)|